Useful python commands

Python module installation

Own modules

A module is a list of functions and classes you would like to use. In order to use your owm module in python, you can just write it in a file with an extension ".py", and call this module by a command:
import module_name

Then all functions or classes from the loaded ".py" file will become available in your code. The ".py" file has to be in the same directory you are working in.


In addition, there are tons of different nice modules for python available here: In order to install a python module from PyPi in Unix or from a command line, one can use "pip":
pip install --user module_name

Here module_name is a name of module from PyPi. An option "--user" is useful on computer clusters (CIT, OzStar), where user does not have rights for a global installation on the machine.

From git or external sources

Modules from remote git repositories are usually supplied with "", which has to be ran for modules to be installed: python install.

For developers of the python module

Say, we downloaded (cloned) a git repository with a python module. After a default installation modules are located in ~/.local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/.... If we change the code in a git repository, we would need to reinstall the module again, so that our changes take effect.

A better way would be then to install a module this way: python develop. This way changes to the git-repository are automatically reflected in your code, with no need to re-install the module.


A useful module for debbugging in python is "ipdb". After placing import ipdb in the beginning of the code, we can pause the code execution at any line with ipdb.set_trace(). Then we can type "c" to continue execution or "q" to quit. We can try out any other command when the code execution is paused this way.

Another way is to run the python script this way: python -m pdb It is particularly useful when it is not clear at what line an error has occurred. In the beginning "c" should be typed to get the code running.

Danger zone!

Copying arrays in python is not the same, as assigning an old array variable to a new array. It worked for me in ipython debugger (ipdb), but did not work in the script: after new arrays were created, assignment of values to their elements did not work. The reason is because python interprets assignment of an array, as directing the new array to the same physical memory, as is occupied by an old array. Instead, we need to use new_array = old_array.copy().

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